Faculty and Staff
Overall Listing - information can also be found under each department and center
|Student Rec Cntr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-3732||Staff|
Research Interests: Communication, Education, Philanthropy
LTC Arizmendi, Jaime
Avalos, Antonio - Economics Department Chair
Research Interests: Economic Development, Political Economy of Latin America, Forensic Economics
|PB-282||Econfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-3916||Full Prof, Interim Chair|
Research Interests: Business ethics, ethical decision making in organizations, emotions in the workplace.
Education: Master of Science in Taxation, San Joaquin College of Law
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with emphasis in Accounting. California State University, Los Angeles.
|Student RecCntr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-3735||Staff|
Dr. Monique L. Bell is an assistant professor of marketing and the Larry and Patti Johanson Research Fellow (2013-2017) at California State University, Fresno, where she teaches Marketing Concepts, Consumer Behavior, Promotion Principles and Practices and Digital Marketing. Dr. Bell earned the Provost’s Award for Promising New Faculty, an American Marketing Association Foundation (AMAF) New Faculty Grant, and an Advertising Education Foundation (AEF) Visiting Professor Program fellowship. She received her doctoral degree from Drexel University, her master’s degree from University of Baltimore, and her undergraduate degree from Morgan State University. Dr. Bell’s research interests include marketing communications and marketing strategy. She is particularly interested in the influence of culture on marketing effectiveness. Dr. Bell's dissertation, which studies the effects of firms’ organizational values on customer satisfaction and corporate reputation, earned the Melvin and Patricia Stith Marketing Doctoral Dissertation Grant, as well as the Drexel University Outstanding Dissertation Award. Dr. Bell also examines facets of multicultural marketing, including language and identity. She has published in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Marketing Communications and Psychology & Marketing. Prior to working in academia, Dr. Bell worked in several marketing and communications roles in Baltimore, Maryland.
Research Interests: Branding, Marketing Communications, Multicultural Marketing, Consumer and Organizational Values, Entrepreneurs of Color, Wine Marketing
Dr. Biggane is an Associate Professor in the department of management at California
State University, Fresno. Prior to entering academia, Jon worked as a Sr. Staffing
Consultant at GE Nuclear, a Business Analyst at BHI Energy, and a Legislative Aide
at the New York State Senate. He holds a PhD from the University of Memphis, MBA and
BS in Management from the University of North Carolina Wilmington and he is completing
a graduate degree at Harvard University's Extension School.
Jon's research interests include intraorganizational relationships, with particular emphasis on employee retention, employee well-being, and organizational change and turnover. His work has been published in leading journals such as Human Resource Management Review and the Journal of Business and Psychology. He also serves as a reviewer and subject matter expert for prominent journals in the fields of HR and organizational behavior.
The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, Chapter 062, held positions of President, Past-President, Secretary, Treasurer over 21 years, EEOD 7 years.
|PB-282||Deanfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-2482||Staff, Admin Analyst|
Janet Bitter has experiences in education and agriculture for 12 years; and is an accountant in 6+ different industries (restaurant, legal, clothing, non-profit, music, travel, etc.). Janet has been teaching ‘Organizational Behavior,’ for over 11 years where she has 300-550 students each semester. Janet educates students on course topics such as: perception, planning, strategy, culture, conflict, negotiations, leadership and groups/teams.
Research Interests: Motivating the workforce, working in the virtual realm, and time management.
Research Interests: Experiential Education, Student Experiences, High Impact Practices, Career Development, Professional Development, Career Curriculum, First Year Experiences, Marketing, Assessment
Research Interests: Organizational leadership, helping behaviors in the workplace, skill assessment and development.
Research Interests: Business management and Entrepreneurship
Research Interests: International Business, Global Cultures as they relate to Business
Education: Stetson U. - DeLand, FL. BBA - Accounting
U. CHICAGO Graduate School of Business - Economics (non-degree)
University of Kansas - MBA - International Finance
|NG-153||ROTC/AFemail@example.com||559-278-2593||Staff, Admin Asst|
Cade Jr., Alan
Education: BS Agricultural Business and Economics - CSU Fresno
Research Interests: Heterodox
Chen, Kuang (K.C.) - Finance & Business Law Department Chair
Research Interests: Financial engineering, valuation of securities, and investment management
|PB-285||FBLfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-5646||Full Prof & Chair|
Research Interests: MBA, Operation & Information Analysts , Marketing
Research Interests: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Social Mobile Computing, Information Systems
Research Interests: Interests in communication skills, self-confidence, and leadership
Education: DBA - studying at DePaul University, MBA - Fresno State, BBA - Fresno Pacific University
Research Interests: Strategic Planning for Economic Development, Entrepreneurship for Social Impact
Research Interests: Real estate valuation, sustainability, green building, real estate law, communication, ethics
Dr. Lizhu Davis is an associate professor of fashion merchandising (FM) at California State University, Fresno, where she has taught all FM courses since 2007. Dr. Davis earned her Master’s degree in Textile Design and Marketing and a Ph.D. in Consumer, Apparel, and Retail Studies from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Prior to her graduate studies, she worked in the textile industry in China. During her initial years at Fresno State, she brought fashion business elements into the FM program, including fashion retail buying, international sourcing, and fashion entrepreneurship. Dr. Davis’ research focuses on consumer shopping behavior, specifically shopping experiences, shopping value, shopping orientation, as well as store choices and preferences. As a Coleman Fellow of Entrepreneurship, she is pursing fashion entrepreneurship research. She has investigated Fashion students’ entrepreneurial intentions, as well as fashion entrepreneurs’ idea recognition and startup process. She has published in academic journals on consumer behavior, retailing, and entrepreneurship, including International Journal of Consumer Studies, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, and Journal of Enterprising Culture.
Research Interests: Consumer shopping behavior, including shopping value, experiences, motivation, orientation, and store choice criteria; religiosity and shopping; green apparel consumption behavior; fashion entrepreneurship; social medial and appearance management
De Freitas, Diane
Research Interests: The interplay of values and identity in institutions and institutional work; Managing contextually stigmatized identities; Social networks and inhabited experiences of influence and collective action.
Research Interests: Internal controls and its impact on company operations.
Research Interests: Business, Communication, Psychology
Research Interests: Foundational Economics, Social Science Education, Dual Language Learners, Systemic Functional Linguistics
Mr. Finley earned his BS and MBA from California State University, Fresno. He has helped develop and grow two different start-up companies that were eventually acquired by publicly traded companies and spent the majority of his career working in New York City and the Bay Area. Professor Finley is currently the Managing Director of Investments and a Vice President at United Security Bank and is responsible for all aspects of the bank’s investment business, estate planning, and all related marketing.
Research Interests: Strategic Planning, Direct Sales, Services Marketing, and Sales Management.
Research Interests: Graphic Design
|Student Rec Cntr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-3728||Staff|
Dr. Susan Geringer received her Bachelor’s Degree and Master’s Degree from California State University, Sacramento. She attended New York University for doctoral work and completed her Doctorate in Business Administration at Henley Management College at Henley-on-Thames, England. Dr. Geringer’s professional background includes positions such as retail executive, retail buyer, special events and entertainment management and public relations director at an advertising agency. She has taught at the university level since 1982. Dr. Geringer is the current president of the Marketing Management Association. Dr. Geringer’s teaching and research areas include Consumer Behavior, Sports Marketing, Marketing Concepts, and Marketing Education topics. Her recent research addresses topics including purchasing decisions by Generation Y, cell phone purchase research, sports marketing, fashion marketing, religion & marketing, the Concept of "Flow" in various aspects of consumerism, and service learning topics. Dr. Geringer’s publications include those on service learning topics as well as two textbooks, “Fashion, Color, Line and Design” and “History of 20th Century Costume and Merchandising”, which was co-authored with Evelyn Oliver in "Leading Issues in Business Research" with Dr. Jolin Mendy. Dr. Geringer & co-authors have twice been awarded the Best Paper Award in the Consumer Behavior Track by the Marketing Management Association. Her authored case studies have appeared in Marketing textbooks. She has been awarded The CSB Dean's Excellence in Teaching Award three times. She was also awarded the CSB Dean's Award for Excellence in Research. Dr. Geringer also works on legal cases as an expert witness and consultant, as well as a consultant to retail stores.
Education: Bachelor of science degree, Community Science
Education: B.S. Business Administration - Marketing
|NG-145||ROTC/Armyfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-8227||Staff, Admin Assist|
Education: Bachelor of Science in Business Administration - Marketing from the Craig School of Business at Fresno State
|PB-211||Advising Centeremail@example.com||559-278-4943||Staff, Advising|
Research Interests: Marketing, androgogy, teacher-student communication, curriculum design, excellence in college teaching
Research Interests: Governmental and Nonprofit Accounting, Ethics, Sustainability Accounting
Iriberri, Alicia - Department of Information Systems and Decision Sciences Chair
Research Interests: Text Mining, Natural Language Processing, Performance Management, Data Visualization
|PB-221||ISDSfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-4852||Chair, Assoc Prof|
Research Interests: Digital and social technologies, and data analytics.
Education: Bachelor and Master of Music.
Areas of expertise: Extensive administrative background in various fields of business.
Education: Bachelors Degree, Craig School of Business,
Area of expertise: HR in Army ROTC
Research Interests: Real estate economics and finance; determinants of firm births and deaths.
|PB-506||FBL & Garzarianemail@example.com||559-278-2194||Assoc Prof|
Research Interests: online pedagogy (teaching and learning); water law and ethics; promoting and developing critical thinking skills; intellectual property law; educational technology tools; ethics; using case studies in teaching
Education: J.D. New York University 1977
B. A. Sociology Creighton University, 1974
Certificate in Online Education, 2003
Research Interests: Sustainable Development; Water Resource Management; Social Ecological Economics; Transportation Infrastructure and Innovation; Program/Project Management
Education: Bachelor of Arts, Haverford College, May 1994,
Master of City Planning, University of Pennsylvania, May 1997,
Master of Science, Water Resource Management, Fresno State University CGE (in progress, May 2022)
Research Interests: Environmental law, intellectual property law
Research Interests: Labor and employment law, Employee and labor relations, Alternative dispute resolution in employment
|Thom 126||Mgtfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-1165||Full Prof|
Research Interests: Open Macroeconomics, International economics
Kim, Hyung Tae (Ted)
Research interest: Earnings management, voluntary disclosure, corporate governance, cost of equity, and auditing. His research has been published in the European Accounting Review, Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting and Economics, Applied Economics Letters, Banking and Finance Review, and Quarterly Journal of Finance and Accounting.
Ph. D. in Accounting, College of Business, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 2013
B.S. in Applied Mathematics (KAIST), 2004.
Education: Bachelor's degree in Psychology, M.S. degree in Counseling with a specialization in academic counseling
|PB-185||Advising Centeremail@example.com||559-278-4943||Staff, Advising|
• Artificial Intelligence: Implications for Business Strategy certificate program (2019), MIT Sloan School of Management, Boston, MA, USA
• CompTIA Security+ certified (April 2015), recertified (April 2018), recertified (January 2021)
• Security+ certificate program (2015), Security University, Herndon, VA, USA
• SAP certificate program (2013), California State University, Chico, CA, USA
Dissertation: “A Real-Time Expert System for Controlling Packet Switching Data Communication Networks” (Funded by AT&T)
• MBA with Management Information Systems (MIS) concentration (1985), Graduate School of Business, Southern New Hampshire University, Manchester, NH
• MS in Electronics Engineering (1982), Graduate School, Yeungnam University, South Korea
• BS in Electronics Engineering (1978), College of Engineering, Yeungnam University, South Korea
|PB-287||ISDSfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-2823||Chair, Full Prof|
Ladd, James Lt. Col.
Lt Col James Ladd is the Professor of Aerospace Studies and Commander of Air Force ROTC Detachment 035 at Fresno State University. In this capacity, he leads a cadre of officers and enlisted members responsible for recruiting, educating, training and motivating officer candidates entering the United States Air Force. Prior to his Air Force ROTC assignment he was an Air Force Special Warfare Squadron Commander of the 25th Air Support Operations Squadron at Wheeler Army Airfield, Hawaii. As the 25 ASOS/CC, Lt Col Ladd led a team of 134 Airmen from 27 Air Force specialties including Air Liaison Officers, Joint Terminal Attack Controllers and support personnel with communications, cyber, vehicle maintenance, power production, supply, space and intelligence expertise.
2000 Bachelor of Arts degree in Mathematics, The University of Texas at Austin
2005 Squadron Officer School, Maxwell AFB, AL
2011 Master of Military Operational Art and Science, Air Command and Staff College, by correspondence
2013 Joint Combined Warfighting School--JPME Phase II, MacDill AFB, FL
2014 Level III-Fully Qualified Joint Staff Officer In accordance with Title 10, United States Code, section 661
2018 Air War College, by correspondence, Maxwell AFB, AL
Lin, Shu - Accountancy Department Chair
Research Interests: Corporate Governance, Earnings Management, Analysts' Forecasts, and Internal Auditing
|PB-284||Acctemail@example.com||559-278-2852||Chair, Full Prof|
LTC Lunsford, Joshua
|NG-145E||ROTC/Armyfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-5464||Chair, Prof of Military Science (PMS)|
|Student Rec Cntr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-3735||Staff|
Martinez Dominguez, Carlos
Research Interests: Cyber security, mobile security, security
Education: Business Administration degree with emphasis in Information Systems from Fresno State
Areas of expertise: budget/financials and policies/procedures
|PB-282||Deanfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-4523||Staff, Deans Assistant|
Research Interests: Behavioral Finance, Experimental Finance
Research Interests: International business/management, entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, small and medium-sized enterprises
Research Interests: How the brain remembers, learning, 21st Century communication
Research Interests: Business Communication
Education: BS Business Admin., Management; MA Education, Higher Education and Leadership
|PB-289||MGTemail@example.com||559-278-2851||Staff, Admin Asst|
Ms. Barbara Morgan's professional experience includes directing corporate marketing
efforts in both B2B and B2C environments, managing large-scale customer service operations,
and designing and implementing marketing research programs focusing on customer satisfaction
and product quality. Ms. Morgan has been part of the management team at Pelco since
2004 and currently directs the global training team delivering technical, product,
and sales training to 9,000 customers and employees annually. Ms. Morgan has previously
served as VP of Marketing & Advertising for Duncan Enterprises, a global distributor
of consumer products in the hobby industry and a supplier to Wal-Mart and Michael's;
VP of Marketing and New Products for ValliWide Bank, a commercial bank focused on
growth through an aggressive acquisition strategy; and as VP and Regional Sales Manager
for Glendale Federal Bank.
Ms. Morgan received her MBA from California State University, Fresno, with distinction and holds an M.Ed. from the College of Notre Dame as well as a B.A. in Economics from the University of Santa Clara. She is active in the Fresno community and has served on the Board of Directors of the Marjaree Mason Center for the past several years, including two years as Board President. Ms. Morgan has served as adjunct faculty for the past eight years in the Craig School's graduate and undergraduate business programs.
Research Interests: International Marketing; Services Marketing
Nguyen, Vinh Huy
Research Interests: Corporate finance; investments; corporate governance
Education: B.S. Business Administration-HRM option & M.S. Counseling-Counseling & Student Services; both from Fresno State
|PB-185||Advising Centerfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-4943||Staff, Advising|
|PB-185||Advising Centeremail@example.com||559-278-4943||Staff, Advising|
Dr. Beng Ong joined CSUF in 1990. He holds a Ph.D. in Business (Marketing); from University of Arkansas. Ong has taught a number of undergraduate and graduate marketing class including some totally online and hybrid (online and face-to-face combination) courses. He has managed dozens of marketing and MBA Team Consulting projects as well as internships for organizations and small businesses including Herwaldt Motors, Ford Motor Company, Citi Cards, GM Chevrolet, AmeriPride, Pelco, Yellow Pages Advertising Association, Fresno State Printing Services Office, and Direct Marketing Educational Foundation.
Beng Ong has over 12 years of marketing and research consulting experience. He served as Senior Market Research Manager at Insight Express, and prior to that, served as Director of Arkansas Household Research Panel. Ong has consulted with a number of corporations, government agencies, advertising firms, and syndicated research suppliers. Some of the projects included local/regional polling, focus groups, surveys, analyses on social, political, regulatory, and economic issues, program/brand awareness campaign assessments, as well as feasibility and forecasting studies. Beng Ong has also held visiting engagements at Saatchi & Saatchi Advertising (Los Angeles), Microsoft Indonesia, and NetApps Malaysia.
Ong has published over two dozens articles (several publications co-authored with his undergraduate and graduate students), and presented papers at numerous conferences. Beng Ong was invited to be the first speaker at Asian Bloggers and Social Media Conference in Malaysia (2010).
Beng Ong's current teaching and research is in Environmental Sustainability. He is also a faculty advisor for the Fresno State Malaysian Student Club.
Research Interests: Family Businesses, Accounting Information Systems, Pedagogy in Accounting and IS, Impact of Information Systems Security and Controls
Research Interests: Auditing, Accounting & Auditing Behavior, Financial Accounting
Pendergrass, Robert W.
Dr. Porter earned membership into Beta Gamma Sigma, the international honor society for collegiate schools of business. His primary teaching areas at the Craig School of Business are Sports Marketing and E-Marketing Technologies & Social Media. Dr. Porter’s research interests include consumer-to-consumer marketing, persuasion knowledge, and the influence of a source to impact the behavior of another individual or individuals. His work has been published in the Psychology and Marketing journal and the International Journal of Advertising. He has held marketing, professional selling, entertainment licensing, and financial consulting roles at firms including Avery Dennison, First Data, Warner Music Group, and Discover Card Financial Services.
Research Interests: Consumer behavior, eWOM, and persuasion knowledge.
Education: B.S. in Marketing from Northern Illinois University (NIU),
M.B.A. from the University of Southern California (USC),
Ph.D. in Business Administration from Louisiana State University (LSU)
Education: BA- Liberal Studies from Fresno State
MS in Educational Counseling, Student Affairs from CSU Bakersfield
*Currently working on a MS in Criminology from Fresno State,
Features: Congressional Award from the Crime Victims Caucus- Eva Murillo Unsung Hero Award (2017 recipient),
Education: Doctorate in Business Administration (DBA)
Areas of expertise: Finance and Accounting; Executive Education; Professional Development Training; Economic Development Training; Agricultural Lending Institute; Grant Administration
|PB-182||UBCfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-2352||Interim Director UBC|
|Student Rec Cntr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-2568||Staff|
Research Interests: Financial reporting quality, earnings management, cryptocurrency, ethics and international accounting.
Schmidtke, James - Department of Management Chair
|PB-289||Mgtfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-2851||Full Prof, Chair|
|Student Rec Centr||Lyles Cntremail@example.com||559-278-2045||Lecturer|
Educatiom: Ph.D., Business Administration (International Business-Finance), Ohio State University
MBA (Finance & Investment) George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
BBA, Business Administration (Accounting), Tehran Business School 1973
|Student Rec Centr||Lyles Centerfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-3705||Staff|
Research Interests: Decision Analysis,
Decision Support Systems, APQP,
Supply Chain Sustainability,
Transportation and Logistics
Research Interests: Local business case studies, cocoa supply chain management and West Africa
Research Interests: Social Network Analysis, organizational behavior research, teaching
Dr. Keith Story is an assistant professor of marketing and supply chain management business.
His research interests include business-to-business marketing, marketing strategy, and the marketing-supply chain interface. Dr. Story’s current research looks at the ability of firms to recognize and act on innovation opportunities as a strategic resource, and how that resource can be used as a competitive advantage. He is a Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fellow and was awarded a fellowship for his doctoral studies from the Intermodal Freight Transportation Institute at the University of Memphis. Prior to his academic career, Dr. Story worked in supply chain and marketing roles for leading companies such as Alcoa, Johnson and Johnson, Deloitte Consulting, and Accredo. His professional responsibilities spanned several areas of marketing and supply chain, including brand management, product management, inventory management, and operations improvement.
Stratemeyer, Andreas - Department of Marketing & Logistics Chair
|PB-388||Mktgemail@example.com||559-278-7830||Chair, Full Prof|
Research Interests: Retirement planning
Dr. Yertai has a Ph.D. in Operations Management focusing on closed-loop supply chains from Kent State University. Dr. Yertai has hands on experience with analytical and empirical modeling, optimization, simulation, data mining and forecasting. He also has vast experience with SQL, SAS, SPSS, Python, Arena, Matlab, Mathematica and has been published in leading academic journals.
Research Interests: Supply chain and operations management, Analytics, Data science
Research interest: inventory modeling in supply chain using operations research and decision sciences
tools to derive results and theorems in the areas of dynamic lot sizing and learning
and forgetting in the production environment, maintenance scheduling, and quality
Publication of my articles in high quality peer-reviewed journals such as Production and Operations Management (listed in Business Week's 20 Premier Journals), European Journal of Operational Research (A*), IIE Transactions (A), Operations Research Letters (A), and, Naval Research Logistics.
|PB-528||Dean, Tech Servicesfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-4989||Staff|
Ms. Patricia Bruegman-Turnbull earned both her BA and MBA degrees from California State University, Fresno. During her graduate studies, she began an eight-year career with a Fresno-based advertising agency before striking out on her own with Turnbull Marketing Services, Inc., working with local businesses in the financial, healthcare and real estate industries. Additionally, Patricia serves as Director of Marketing for one of the largest eye care providers in the Valley. Patricia's marketing strengths are in strategic planning, creative development, public relations and media.
Research Interests: Accounting
Van Vleck, Va Nee
Dr. Va Nee L. Van Vleckl is an associate professor of economics at California State University, Fresno, where she teaches Principles of Microeconomics, Intermediate Microeconomic Theory, Health Economics, Economics and Crime, and other applications of microeconomic analysis. Dr. Van Vleck has taught at Fresno State since 2005 after having taught for several other colleges and universities in the West and Midwest. She received her doctoral degree from the University of Iowa, her master’s degree from Columbia University in New York City, and her undergraduate degree from Nebraska Wesleyan University in her hometown, Lincoln, Nebraska. She also completed a post-doctoral fellowship in public health/alcohol studies in cooperation with the Prevention Research Center and Alcohol Research Group in the Bay Area. Dr. Van Vleck’s research interests include teaching and pedagogy in economics, the interactions of California legal systems and community patterns of drunk driving, and several aspects of economic history. Dr. Van Vleck's dissertation, which examined technological path-dependence in early twentieth-century British railroads. For her dissertation, Dr. Van Vleck was awarded the Alexander Gerschenkron Prize from the Economic History Association for outstanding dissertation. She has published in the Accident Analysis and Prevention, International Journal of Pluralism and Economic Education, International Journal of Social Economics, and Journal of Economic History.
Research Interests: Applied Microeconomics, Economic History, Law & Economics, Social Economics
Research Interests: Applied Econometrics, Applied Macroeconomics, Labor Economics
|PB-282||Deanemail@example.com||559-278-2482||Interim Assoc Dean|
|PB-540||FBL, MBA Directorfirstname.lastname@example.org||559-278-4981||Assoc Prof|
Research Interests: Behavioral Finance, Entrepreneurial Finance, Corporate Finance
Research Interests: Technology in Business
Zhang, Hai Ying
Haiying Zhang has a diverse professional career background, covering multiple industries including retail, financial services, public relations and advertising. She held positions as retail executive, retail buyer and in store management with several regional retail chains. Ms. Zhang is currently Director of Asian Markets for a national agriculture trade organization and is responsible for directing all public relations, advertising and trade activities in Asia markets.
Ms. Zhang received her MBA degree from Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, and has served as adjunct faculty in the Marketing and Logistics department, Craig School of Business since 2012.
Research Interests: Global Marketing, Retail Management, Strategic Planning, Financial Planning & Management, Market Development and Negotiation.